# Introduction

本文内容主要系摘录翻译自Ang Li的博士毕业论文。

# 1.Perfect

Power Efficiency Revolution for Embedded Computing

Application Domains |
Kernels |
---|---|

PERFECT Application 1 | Discrete Wavelet Transform |

2D Convolution | |

Histogram Equalization | |

Space Time Adaptive Processing | System Solver |

Inner Product | |

Outer Product | |

Synthetic Aperture Radar | Interpolation 1 |

Interpolation 2 | |

Back Projection (Non-Fourier SAR) | |

Wide Area Motion Imaging | Debayer |

Image Registration | |

Change Detection | |

Required Kernels | Sort |

FFT 1D | |

FFT 2D |

# 2. AxBench

A Multiplatform Benchmark Suite for Approximate Computing

One of the goals of AxBench is to provide a diverse set of applications to further facilitate research and development in approximate computing.

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7755728/

下载地址

benchmark | platform | domain | Quality Metric |
---|---|---|---|

binarization | GPU | Image Processing | Image Diff |

blackscholes | CPU, GPU | Finance | Avg. Relative Error |

brent-kung | ASIC | Arithmetic Computation | Avg. Relative Error |

canneal | CPU | Optimization | Avg. Relative Error |

convolution | GPU | Machine Learning | Avg. Relative Error |

fastwalsh | GPU | Signal Processing | Image Diff |

fft | CPU | Signal Processing | Avg. Relative Error |

fir | ASIC | Signal Processing | Avg. Relative Error |

forwardk2j | CPU, ASIC | Robotics | Avg. Relative Error |

inversek2j | CPU, GPU, ASIC | Robotics | Avg. Relative Error |

jmeint | CPU, GPU | 3D Gaming | Miss Rate |

jpeg | CPU | Image Processing | Image Diff |

kmeans | CPU, ASIC | Machine Learning | Image Diff |

kogge-stone | ASIC | Arithmetic Computation | Avg. Relative Error |

laplacian | GPU | Image Processing | Image Diff |

meanfilter | GPU | Machine Vision | Image Diff |

neural network | ASIC | Machine Learning | Avg. Relative Error |

newton-raph | GPU | Numerical Analysis | Avg. Relative Error |

sobel | CPU, GPU, ASIC | Image Processing | Image Diff |

srad | GPU | Medical Imaging | Image Diff |

wallace-tree | ASIC | Arithmetic Computation | Avg. Relative Error |

# 3. Rodinia

下载页面：

http://lava.cs.virginia.edu/Rodinia/download_links.htm

Applications | Dwarves | Domains | Parallel Model | Incre. Ver. |

Leukocyte | Structured Grid | Medical Imaging | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Heart Wall | Structured Grid | Medical Imaging | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

MUMmerGPU | Graph Traversal | Bioinformatics | CUDA, OMP | |

CFD Solver1 | Unstructured Grid | Fluid Dynamics | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

LU Decomposition | Dense Linear Algebra | Linear Algebra | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

HotSpot | Structured Grid | Physics Simulation | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Back Propagation | Unstructured Grid | Pattern Recognition | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Needleman-Wunsch | Dynamic Programming | Bioinformatics | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Kmeans | Dense Linear Algebra | Data Mining | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Breadth-First Search1 | Graph Traversal | Graph Algorithms | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

SRAD | Structured Grid | Image Processing | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Streamcluster1 | Dense Linear Algebra | Data Mining | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Particle Filter | Structured Grid | Medical Imaging | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

PathFinder | Dynamic Programming | Grid Traversal | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Gaussian Elimination | Dense Linear Algebra | Linear Algebra | CUDA, OCL | |

k-Nearest Neighbors | Dense Linear Algebra | Data Mining | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

LavaMD2 | N-Body | Molecular Dynamics | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

Myocyte | Structured Grid | Biological Simulation | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

B+ Tree | Graph Traversal | Search | CUDA, OMP, OCL | |

GPUDWT | Spectral Method | Image/Video Compression | CUDA, OCL | |

Hybrid Sort | Sorting | Sorting Algorithms | CUDA, OCL | |

Hotspot3D | Structured Grid | Physics Simulation | CUDA, OCL, OMP | Hotspot for 3D IC |

Huffman | Finite State Machine | Lossless data compression | CUDA, OCL |

Ang Li的分类：

Application | Description | Domain | CUDA | OpenCL | OpenMP |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

backprop | Perceptron back propagation | Neural Network | Yes | Yes | Yes |

bfs | Breadth first search | Graph Algorithm | Yes | Yes | Yes |

b+tree | B+tree Operation | Searching Yes | Yes | Yes | |

leukocyte | Detect leukocytes in blood vessel video | Medical Imaging | Yes | Yes | Yes |

heartwall | Tracks the mouse heart movement by stimulus | Medical Imaging | Yes | No | Yes |

cfd | Finite volume solver for 3D Euler equations for flow | Fluid Dynamics | Yes | Yes | Yes |

lud | Calculate the solutions of a set of linear equations | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

hotspot | Estimate processor temperature | Physical Simulation | Yes | Yes | Yes |

nw | Optimization method for DNA sequence alignments | Bioinformatics | Yes | Yes | Yes |

kmeans | Clustering algorithm | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | Yes |

srad | Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

streamcluster | Finds medians to assign points to nearest centers | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | Yes |

particlefilter | Locate object location based on Noise and path | Medical Imaging | Yes | Yes | Yes |

pathfinder | Dynamic programming to find a path on a 2D grid Grid | Traversal | Yes | Yes | Yes |

gaussian | Solving variables in a linear system | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | No |

nn | Find k-nearest neighbors from an unstructured data set | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | Yes |

lavaMD | Calculate particle potential and relocation in 3D | Molecular Dynamics | Yes | Yes | Yes |

myocyte | Simulate the behavior of cardiac hear muscle cell | Biological Simulation | Yes | Yes | Yes |

# 4. Parboil

Parboil强调面向吞吐量的流媒体应用。其中的每个应用都有原生的CUDA应用和优化过的应用。

Application | Description | Domain | CUDA | OpenCL | C |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

bfs | Breadth-first-search | Graph Algorithm | Yes | Yes | Yes |

cutcp | Compute Coulombic potential for a 3D grid | Molecular Dynamics | Yes | Yes | Yes |

histogram | Compute 2D saturating histogram with maximum 256 bins | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | Yes |

lbm | Fluid dynamics simulation using Lattice-Bolzmann Method | Fluid Dynamics | Yes | Yes | Yes |

mm | Dense matrix-matrix multiply | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

mri-gridding | Compute regular data grid via weighted interpolation | Medical Imaging | Yes | Yes | Yes |

mir-q | Compute scanner configuration for calibration in 3D MRI | Medical Imaging | Yes | Yes | Yes |

sad | Sum of absolute differences kernel in MPEG video encoders | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

spmv | Compute the product of a sparse matrix with a dense vector | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

stencil | An iterative Jacobi stencil operation on a regular 3D grid | Cellular Automation | Yes | Yes | Yes |

tpacf | Analyze the spatial distribution of astronomical bodies | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | Yes |

# 5. Shoc

测量协处理的稳定性和性能，such as GPUs, Xeon-Phi, etc。

Application | Description | Domain | CUDA | OpenCL | C |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

qtclustering | Group genes into high quality clusters | Bioinformatics | Yes | No | No |

s3d | Compute chemical reaction rate across a 3D grid | Simulation | Yes | Yes | No |

scan | Parallel prefix sum of floating point numbers | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | No |

reduction | Sum reduction operation of floating point numbers | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | No |

md | Lennard-Jones potential computations | Molecular Dynamics | Yes | Yes | No |

fft | Fast Fourier transform | Signal Processing | Yes | Yes | No |

sgemm | Single precision general matrix multiply | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | No |

sort | Fast radix sort program | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | No |

stencil2d | Standard 2d 9 points stencil calculation | Cellular Automation | Yes | Yes | No |

bfs | Breadth-first-search | Graph Algorithm | Yes | Yes | No |

spmv | Sparse matrix vector multiplication | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

# 6. Polybench

包含从[非]结构循环嵌套转换的Kernel。这些循环以前用于评估基于多面体模型的优化工具。

Application | Description | Domain | CUDA | OpenCL | C |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

2dconv | 2D convolution | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

2mm | 2 matrix multiply | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

3dconv | 3D convolution | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

3mm | 3 matrix multiply | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

atax | Matrix transpose and vector multiplication | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

bicg | Bicg kernel for BiCGStab linear solver | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

corr | Correlation computation | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

covar | Covariance computation | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

fdtd2d | 2D finite difference time domain kernel | Simulation | Yes | Yes | Yes |

gemm | matrix multiply | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

gesummv | Scalar vector and matrix multiplication | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

gramschm | Gram-schmidt process | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

mvt | Matrix vector product and transpose | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

syr2k | Symmetric rank-2k operations | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

syrk | Symmetric rank-k operations | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

# 7. Mars

用map reduce实现的data-mining的benchmark。

Application | Description | Domain | CUDA | OpenCL | C |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

sm | Find the position of a string in a file | Data Mining | Yes | No | No |

ii | Build inverted index for links in HTML files | Data Mining | Yes | No | No |

ss | Compute pair-wise similarity score for docs | Data Mining | Yes | No | No |

mm | Multiply two matrices | Linear Algebra | Yes | No | No |

pvc | Count distinct page views from web logs | Data Mining | Yes | No | No |

pvr | Find the top ten hottest pages in the web log | Data Mining | Yes | No | No |

# 8. Longstar

关注于不规则的应用，主要是数据依赖和拓扑依赖。

Application | Description | Domain | CUDA | OpenCL | C |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

bfs | Breadth first search | Graph Algorithm | Yes | No | No |

bh | Simulate the gravitational forces in Barnes-Hut | algorithm Simulation | Yes | No | No |

dc | Lossless compression upon double-precision FP data | Signal Processing | Yes | No | No |

dmr | Meshrefinement algorithm from computational geometry | Image Processing | Yes | No | No |

pta | Andersen’s flow/context-insensitive points-to analysis | Graph Algorithm | Yes | No | No |

sp | Heuristic SAT-solver based on BaYesian inference | Graph Algorithm | Yes | No | No |

sssp | Shortest path in a directed graph with weighted edges | Graph Algorithm | Yes | No | No |

tsp | Traveling salesman problem | Graph Algorithm | Yes | No | No |

# 9. CUDA SDK

Application | Description | Domain | CUDA | OpenCL | C |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

bilateralFilter | Edge-preserving non-linear smoothing filter | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

binomialOption | Evaluate option call price using binomial model | Computational Finance | Yes | Yes | Yes |

BlackScholes | Evaluate option call price using Black-Scholes model | Computational Finance | Yes | Yes | Yes |

convolutionFFT2D | 2D convolutions using FFT | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

dct8x8 | Discrete cosine transform for blocks of 8 by 8 pixels | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

dxtc | High quality DXT compression | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

dwtHaar1D | 1D discrete Haar wavelet decomposition | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

eigenvalues | Eigenvalues of a tridiagonal symmetric matrix | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

fastWalshTransform | Hadamard-ordered Fast Walsh transform | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

FDTD3d | Finite differences | time domain progression stencil | Cellular Automation | Yes | Yes |

grabcutNPP | GrabCut approach using the 8 neighborhood | Graph Algorithm | Yes | Yes | Yes |

histogram | 64/256 bin histogram | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | Yes |

imageDenoising | Using KNN and NLM for image denoising | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

lineOfSight | A simple line-of-sight algorithm | Graphic Application | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Mandelbrot | Mandelbrot or Julia sets interactively | Graphic Application | Yes | Yes | Yes |

matrixMul | Matrix multiplication | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

mergeSortv | Merge Sort algorithm | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | No |

MersenneTwister | The Mersenne Twister random number generator | Signal Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

MonteCarlo | Evaluate option call price using Monte Carlo approach | Computational Finance | Yes | Yes | Yes |

nbody | All-pairs gravitational n-body simulation | Simulation | Yes | Yes | Yes |

oceanFFT | Simulate an Ocean height field | Simulation | Yes | Yes | Yes |

reduction | Compute the sum of a large arrays of values | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | No |

scalarProd | Calculate scalar products of input vector pairs | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

scan | Parallel prefix sum | Data Mining | Yes | Yes | Yes |

SobelFilter | Sobel edge detection filter for 8-bit monochrome images | Image Processing | Yes | Yes | Yes |

SobolQRNG | Sobol Quasirandom Sequence Generator | Computational Finance | Yes | Yes | Yes |

transpose | Matrix transpose | Linear Algebra | Yes | Yes | Yes |

# 10. GPGPU-Sim

Application | Description | Domain | CUDA | OpenCL | C |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

aes | AES algorithm in CUDA to encrypt and decrypt files | Cryptography | Yes | No | No |

dc | A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain solver | Simulation | Yes | No | No |

lps | 3D Laplace Solver | Computational Finance | Yes | No | No |

lib | Monte Carlo simulation in London-interbank-offered-rate Model | Computational Finance | Yes | No | No |

mum | Pairwise local sequence alignment for DNA string | Bioinformatics | Yes | No | No |

nn | Convolutional neural network to recognize handwritten digits | Machine Learning | Yes | No | No |

nqu | The N-Queen solver | Simulation | Yes | No | No |

ray | Ray-tracing (rendering graphics with near photo-realism) | Graphic Application | Yes | No | No |

sto | Sliding-window implementation of the MD5 algorithm | Data Mining | Yes | No | No |

wp | Accelerate part of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) | Simulation | Yes | No | No |

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